Pre-electoral Coalitions, Party System and Electoral Geography: A Decade of General Elections in India (1999–2009)

[EN] Between 1999 and 2009, since no single party was in a position to lead a majority in the Lok Sabha, pre-electoral coalitions have become the only option for parties to exercise executive power at the Centre. Looking at the trajectory of two pre-electoral coalitions over ten years, namely the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, the paper attempts to contribute to the nascent research on pre-electoral coalitions. Much has been written on the importance of disproportionate electoral systems or the ideological distance between parties in the formation of governing coalitions. This paper explores the importance of different geographical bases of support in the composition and sustainability of Indian pre-electoral coalitions, election after election, and proposes preliminary elements for a dynamic theory of pre-electoral coalition formation.


Lefebvre Bertrand, Robin Cyril, Pre-electoral Coalitions, Party System and Electoral Geography: A Decade of General Elections in India (1999–2009), South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, 2009, numéro 3,



Contextualizing the Urban Healthcare System. Methodology for developing a geodatabase of Delhi’s healthcare system


[EN] This paper introduces the setting up of a Geographical Information System on Delhi for studies in the Social Sciences. Through an explanation of their methodological procedure and demonstration of thematic applications focusing on the healthcare system’s spatial organization, the authors lead us through the inherent difficulties of building a GIS in an emerging country like India. They also attempt to demonstrate that this kind of tool remains, however, a relevant support for research in the Social Sciences as long as it is used with care and knowledge of the dataset frame. From this perspective, Exploratory Data Analysis coupled with the play of scales provide powerful ways to assess socio-spatial dynamics taking place in the Indian capital.


Pierre Chapelet, Bertrand Lefebvre, Contextualizing the Urban Healthcare System. Methodology for developing a geodatabase of Delhi’s healthcare system, CSH Occasional Paper N°11, 2005, 135 pages,


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Hospital Chains in India: The Coming of Age?

[EN] In many countries, the provision of hospital care is turning into an industry with the increasing presence of large corporate hospital chains. Along with public agencies and small private operators, corporations are now investing in the Indian hospital sector.

Since the 1980s, health sector reforms and the liberalization policy in India have created new profit-making opportunities in the health care market for local and international corporations. A new pro-market regulatory environment has helped private corporations to invest in the hospital sector. While the demand for hospital care has increased in India, public and private hospital care providers failed to deliver not only in terms of volume (i.e. number of beds) but also in term of quality of care. With such an untapped market and a favorable regulatory environment, corporations see a tremendous growth potential in Indian hospital care.

This paper documents the formation of corporate hospital chains in India, their increasing prominence in the delivery of hospital care, and central and state government’s role in this transformation.


Bertrand Lefebvre, Hospital Chains in India: The Coming of Age?, IFRI, 2010, Asie.Visions n°23, 30 pages,



De la planification au marché. La privatisation du secteur hospitalier en Inde (1947-2007)


[FR] Au moment de l’Indépendance, l’Inde souhaite s’orienter vers un système de soins public accessible à tous. Soixante ans plus tard, le secteur privé est devenu l’entrée privilégiée du système de soins pour le patient indien. À travers une approche sensible aux discontinuités territoriales, nous mettons en perspective les mécanismes politiques, économiques et sociaux à l’œuvre dans la privatisation des soins en Inde depuis 1947. La privatisation des soins hospitaliers n’a pas tant été le fait d’une réorientation des politiques de santé à l’échelle nationale, que le résultat d’une transformation endogène du secteur hospitalier. On s’interroge en conclusion sur la capacité de l’État indien à assurer sa nouvelle mission de régulation du secteur hospitalier privé.


Bertrand Lefebvre, « De la planification au marché. La privatisation du secteur hospitalier en Inde (1947-2007) », Transcontinentales, 2007, n°5, pp.39-55,


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